December 20, at 8: The 5-mile mandatory jog completed, he was taking a break from the stream. The soothing gurgle of the rippling water cooled his nerves.
Description[ edit ] The wood tablets found at Vindolanda were the first known surviving examples of the use of ink letters in the Roman period.
The use of ink tablets was documented in contemporary records and Herodian in the third century AD wrote "a writing-tablet of the kind that were made from lime-wood, cut into thin sheets and folded face-to-face by being bent". The tablets are 0.
They were scored down the middle and folded to form diptychs with ink writing on the inner faces, the ink being carbon, gum arabic and water. Nearly tablets were excavated in the s and s. They were taken to the epigraphist Richard Wrightbut rapid oxygenation of the wood meant that they were black and unreadable by the time he was able to view them.
They were sent to Alison Rutherford at Newcastle University Medical School for multi-spectrum photography, which led to infra-red photographs showing the scripts for researchers for the first time.
The results were initially disappointing as the scripts were undecipherable. However, Alan Bowman at Manchester University and David Thomas at Durham University analysed the previously unknown form of cursive script and were able to produce transcriptions. The original director of excavations Robin Birley identified five periods of occupation and expansion: AD 85—92, first fort constructed.
AD 92—97, fort enlargement.
AD 97—, further fort enlargements. AD —, hiatus and re-occupation. AD —, the period when Hadrian's Wall was constructed The tablets were produced in periods 2 and 3 c. The largest group is correspondence of Flavius Cerialis, prefect of the ninth cohort of Batavians and that of his wife, Sulpicia Lepidina.
Some correspondence may relate to civilian traders and contractors; for example Octavian, the writer of Tabletis an entrepreneur dealing in wheat, hides and sinews, but this does not prove him to be a civilian.
The invitation is one of the earliest known examples of writing in Latin by a woman. One of the tablets confirms that Roman soldiers wore underpants subligaria  and also testifies to a high degree of literacy in the Roman army. There are only scant references to the indigenous Celtic Britons.
Until the discovery of the tablets, historians could only speculate on whether the Romans had a nickname for the Britons. Brittunculi diminutive of Britto; hence 'little Britons'found on one of the Vindolanda tablets, is now known to be a derogatory, or patronising, term used by the Roman garrisons that were based in Northern Britain to describe the locals.
The script is derived from the capital writing of the late first century BC and the first century AD. The text rarely shows the unusual or distorted letter-forms or the extravagant ligatures to be found in Greek papyri of the same period.Personal site of author-editor Pat McNees, personal historian and medical historian, bringing a light touch to heavy subjects, helping people and .
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The wood tablets found at Vindolanda were the first known surviving examples of the use of ink letters in the Roman period. The use of ink tablets was documented in contemporary records and Herodian in the third century AD wrote "a writing-tablet of the kind that were made from lime-wood, cut into thin sheets and .
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