More and more countries moved towards the deregulation of their energy sectors, from a regulated and monopolistic industry to one were the market forces of supply and demand determine the unit price of electricity. The first case of energy sector deregulation in Europe was recorded when the United Kingdom with the Electricity Act of created the Electricity Pool for England and Wales. Norway soon followed suit Norwegian Energy Act of and set up the Norwegian Pool inwhich eventually became the Nord Pool in The typical power utility operation is divided into three main functions:
Posted on July 3, by energyskeptic [ When Trucks stop running, civilization ends. Trucks are not only vulnerable to running out of liquid fuels, they also depend on micro-chips i. The less dependent the electric power system is on computers, micro-controllers and processors, and SCADAthe more resilient, easy to repair, and less vulnerable to cyber attacks the power system will be.
The electric grid is already complicated enough, with 9, generation plants,miles of transmission lines, and dozens of squabbling entities running it. The Smart Grid will dramatically increase the dependency of the electric grid on microprocessors, and turn the electric system into a giant computer that will monitor itself, optimize power delivery, remotely control and automate processes, and increase communications between control centers, transformers, switches, substations, homes, and businesses.
Smart Grid devices have the potential of making the electric grid less stable: Due to an increasing density of electromagnetic emitters radiated and conducted, intentional and unintentionalthe new equipment must have adequate immunity to function consistently and reliably, be resilient to major disturbances, and coexist with other equipment.
Making the electric grid even more dependent on microprocessors than it already is will make the grid more difficult and expensive to fix, and overly-dependent on microprocessor production — the most vulnerable industry of all.
Chip fabrication can stop for weeks after a short electric power disturbance or outage, potentially ruining an entire hour batch of microprocessors and manufacturing equipment.
High quality electricity must be available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Semiconductor chips are vulnerable to even tiny power disruptions because a single mistake anywhere in the dozens to hundreds of steps renders the product useless.
Chip fabrication plants can not handle rolling blackouts Electric service interruption is one of the major causes of semiconductor fab losses Global. It can take a week or more for a fabrication plant to start up again EPRI There can be losses of millions of dollars an hour when a chip fabrication plant shuts down Sheppard.
Low Quality Electricity The electric power system was designed to serve analog electric loads—those without microprocessors—and is largely unable to consistently provide the level of digital quality power required by digital manufacturing assembly lines and information systems, and, soon, even our home appliances.
Achieving higher power quality places an additional burden on the power system. Voltage sags can result from utility transmission line faults, or at a given business from motor start-ups, defective wiring, and short circuits, which reduce voltage until a protective device kicks in.
Transients happen due to utility capacitor bank switching or grounding problems at the energy user. Harmonics and spikes often originate at end-user sites, from non-linear loads such as variable speed motor drives, arc furnaces, and fluorescent ballasts. Any device with a microprocessor is vulnerable to the slightest disruption of electricity.
Billions of microprocessors have been incorporated into industrial sensors, home appliances, and other devices. These digital devices are highly sensitive to even the slightest disruption an outage of a small fraction of a single cycle can disrupt performanceas well as to variations in power quality due to transients, harmonics, and voltage surges and sags.Read this Technology Essay and over 88, other research documents.
Power Markets and Electricity Derivatives. Since the early ‘90s, the electrical energy sector has undergone profound and dramatic changes. More and more countries moved towards.
[ When Trucks stop running, civilization ends. Trucks are not only vulnerable to running out of liquid fuels, they also depend on micro-chips (i.e. engine, emissions, etc), which can only be made if electricity . In addition, for most major operators, there are markets for transmission congestion and electricity derivatives such as electricity futures and options, which are actively traded.
These markets developed as a result of the restructuring of electric power . Offering over energy futures and options contracts across crude oil, refined oil, power, natural gas, & emissions.
Power Markets and Electricity Derivatives This Research Paper Power Markets and Electricity Derivatives and other 64,+ term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now on iridis-photo-restoration.com Autor: review • November 2, • Research Paper • Words (3 Pages) • Views4/4(1).
Page 1 CENTRAL ELECTRICITY REGULATORY COMMISSION NEW DELHI No. L-1/13/ CERC Dated 20th January, NOTIFICATION In exercise of powers conferred under Section 66 read with Section (2)(y).