Dreaming in Epistemology a.
A Pragmatist Who's Who: An Historical Overview a. Club members included proto-positivist Chauncey Wrightfuture Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmesand two then-fledgling philosophers who went on to become the first self-conscious pragmatists: Charles Sanders Peircea logician, mathematician, and scientist; and William Jamesa psychologist and moralist armed with a medical degree.
Peirce summarized his own contributions to the Metaphysical Club's meetings in two articles now regarded as founding documents of pragmatism: A Sequel to Pragmatism Peirce, unfortunately, never managed to publish a magnum opus in which his nuanced philosophical views were systematically expounded.
Still, publish he did, though he left behind a mountain of manuscript fragments, many of which only made it into print decades after his death. Peirce and James traveled different paths, philosophically as well as professionally. James, less rigorous but more concrete, became an esteemed public figure and a Harvard professor thanks to his intellectual range, his broad sympathies, and his Emersonian genius for edifying popularization.
He recognized Peirce's enormous creative gifts and did what he could to advance his friend professionally; but ultimately to no avail. Professional success within academe eluded Peirce; after his scandal-shrouded dismissal from Johns Hopkins University —his sole academic appointment—he toiled in isolation in Philosophical essays on dreaming Pennsylvania.
True, Peirce was not entirely cut off: Nevertheless, his philosophical work grew increasingly in-grown, and remained largely unappreciated by his contemporaries. The well-connected James, in contrast, regularly derived inspiration and stimulation from a motley assortment of fellow-travellers, sympathizers, and acute critics.
These included members of the Chicago school of pragmatists, led by John Dewey of whom more anon ; Oxford's acerbic iconoclast F. It should be noted, however, that Royce was also significantly influenced by Peirce. The final member of the classical pragmatist triumvirate is John Deweywho had been a graduate student at Johns Hopkins during Peirce's brief tenure there.
His mature works—Reconstruction in PhilosophyExperience and Natureand The Quest for Certainty —boldly deconstruct the dualisms and dichotomies which, in one guise or another, had underwritten philosophy since the Greeks.
According to Dewey, once philosophers give up these time-honoured distinctions—between appearance and reality, theory and practice, knowledge and action, fact and value—they will see through the ill-posed problems of traditional epistemology and metaphysics.
Mead was a colleague and collaborator. After leaving Chicago for Columbia University inDewey became even more prolific and influential; as a result, pragmatism became an important feature of the philosophical landscape at home and abroad. Dewey, indeed, had disciples and imitators aplenty; what he lacked was a bona fide successor—someone, that is, who could stand to Dewey as he himself stood to James and Peirce.
It is therefore not surprising that by the s—shortly after the publication of Dewey's Logic: The Theory of Inquiry —pragmatism had lost much of its momentum and prestige.
This is not to say that pragmatists became an extinct species; C.
Lewis and Sidney Hookfor instance, remained prominent and productive. But to many it must have seemed that there was no longer much point in calling oneself a pragmatist—especially with the arrival of that self-consciously rigorous import, analytic philosophy.
As American philosophers read more and more of MooreRussell, Wittgensteinand the Vienna Circlemany of them found the once-provocative dicta of Dewey and James infuriatingly vague and hazy. The age of grand synoptic philosophizing was drawing rapidly to a close; the age of piecemeal problem-solving and hard-edged argument was getting underway.
From Quine to Rorty And so it was that Deweyans were undone by the very force that had sustained them, namely, the progressive professionalization of philosophy as a specialized academic discipline.
Of the original pragmatist triumvirate, Peirce fared the best by far; indeed, some analytic philosophers were so impressed by his technical contributions to logic and the philosophy of science that they paid him the dubious compliment of re-making him in their own image. But the reputations of James and Dewey suffered greatly and the influence of pragmatism as a faction waned.
However, despite Quine's qualified enthusiasm for parts of that legacy—an enthusiasm shared in varying degrees by Ludwig WittgensteinRudolf CarnapHans ReichenbachKarl PopperF. RamseyNelson GoodmanWilfrid Sellarsand Thomas Kuhn —mainstream analytic philosophers tended to ignore pragmatism until the early s.
In the absence of an Archimedean point, philosophy can only explore our practices and vocabularies from within; it can neither ground them on something external nor assess them for representational accuracy. Post-epistemological philosophy accordingly becomes the art of understanding; it explores the ways in which those voices which constitute that mutable conversation we call our culture—the voices of science, art, morality, religion, and the like—are related.Defined narrowly, epistemology is the study of knowledge and justified belief.
As the study of knowledge, epistemology is concerned with the following questions: What are the necessary and sufficient conditions of knowledge? Essay Paper on Philosophical Argument: Dream Argument Philosophy is a great science which allows people speculate everything that happens around them and analyze all these things, situations and other people’s behavior and understand the world around.
Free narrative papers, essays, and research papers. Narrative Memories, Life History, And Identity - Trouillot argues that this social process of narrating history makes us all amateur historians, learning more of our training and knowledge from likewise amateur historians than from the more recognized academic channels (Trouillot ).
1. Foreword by David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Corruption is the cancer at the heart of so many of our problems in the world today. Most recent additions to this Reading Room; Frank Visser, 'Spiritual Science' is a Contradiction in Terms, Response to Steve Taylor, November David Lane, Understanding Matter, Why a Spiritual Perspective Needs Science to Make Sense of the World, November Steve Taylor, Beyond Materialism, Why science needs a spiritual perspective to make sense of the world, November JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources.