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Graeme Skinner University of Sydney and Jim Wafer University of Newcastle"A checklist of colonial era musical transcriptions of Australian Indigenous songs", Australharmony an online resource toward the history of music and musicians in colonial and early Federation Australia: We acknowledge and pay respect to the Gadigal people of the Eora Nation.
It is upon their ancestral lands, and in respectful emulation of their example, that Australharmony is built and maintained. Contents of this page click on blue hyperlinks Linguistic data notes by J. Musically specific documentation of ceremonial and recreational song-making, singing, and dancing from the period can be sorted into four cascading categories: While category 4 data is the principal focus of this first page, many of the actual documents also record song texts , and give further details of performance, meaning, and context described verbally  and pictorially .
Other complementary pages will be created, in due course, to log documents that lack category  data, but are sources for categories ,  and . Simply then, this first checklist covers all Australian Indigenous songs documented during the colonial era for which music survives.
Untilall the musical records listed here take the form of manual musical transcriptions into Western notation, from live performances or the observer's memories of live performances, with or without accompanying texts, that survive in printed or occasionally manuscript forms we also list one lost transcription.
Some of the musical transcriptions listed were published after in one instance, as late as ; but we can be fairly certain that they were all based on performances that took place before Beginning inwe also list three sets of mechanical recordings of songs, the latest of which were taken from live performances in andthus extending slightly across the divide 1 January between the colonial and federated eras.
There are just over items songs in the checklist. Around 90 approximately 80 per cent include transcriptions of the words of the song, and the majority of these have as well some kind of gloss.
These items are dealt with below in 35 entries, or song sets, presented in chronological order. Each set if indicated by a numberin large red font and boldfaced. Each entry is built around the source or sources that provides the relevant data minimally, a form of musical notation or a sound recording.
The individual songs within each entry are given a sub-number of the entry number e. In one case the Torres Strait material in entry 30 the entry includes a number of distinct subsidiary song-sets e. Linguistic data notes by J.
Under each individual song heading is a block of text in red, which summaries and tabulates linguistic data for each song.
These blocks consist of up to four headings, e. Cri de ralliement" text: So, for example, the song identification line for one of the songs from south-western Western Australia published in reads thus: Calvert 3 corroborie ".
The "analytics" line consists of three components: The song identified as "7. Air australien des sauvages de la terre d'Arnheim" was purportedly collected in Arnhem Land, but without any further specification of the locality, so it could conceivably pertain to NW or NE.
For further discussion of Australian music regions, see the introduction to Wafer and Turpin We have included these data even when the musical annotation is not accompanied by any text.
Note well that, in some cases, the language of the region is not necessarily the language of the song, which may have originated in a distant location. Where there is an apparent discrepancy, this is noted in the Commentary.
Only one Australian language family, Pama-Nyungan, is represented in the data, since there is no relevant material for the regions in the far north where the non-Pama-Nyungan languages are spoken. There is, however, one entry, 30 Torres Strait Island songs, that includes several song-sets from the Eastern Torres Strait, where the language is said to belong to the Papuan family.
We have adopted the four-fold division of Pama-Nyungan proposed by Bowern and Atkinson Our language group names are also based largely on Bowern and Atkinson, and our language names on the most representative current usage. To give an example:The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.
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