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All documented early Vulcan writing was logographic. Like Chinese characters or Egyptian hieroglyphs of Terra, individual words were originally represented by discrete symbols.
About this course: This course aims to improve your Business English writing skills by developing your use of vocabulary, grammar, understanding of different business writing genres, and your ability to write professional business documents. Skills learned in this course will be used in the cross-cultural communications course and help prepare you to produce the professional business documents in the . Formal & Informal English by Emma Formal English: We use it when writing essays for school, cover letters to apply for jobs, or emails and letters at work. Business English lessons are targeted for people with office jobs. Each lesson contains multiple sentences that you can click on to learn how to say that sentence. You should be able to easily find what you need by the different subcategories. Repeat after the audio files and you will improve your business English.
This is the case for the ancestry of both of the two primary surviving traditions. They can be thought of as iconographic—a front-end visual simplicity representing a rich, more complex history and meaning in the background.
However, while visually attuned to its ancient past, modern calligraphy used for the common transfer of information is largely reformed into a phoneme-based glyph system that is essentially alphabetic. This is the case for both of the surviving traditions, which are called vanu-tanaf-kitaun ceremonial calligraphy and gotavlu-zukitan standard script.
This article will focus on the more ornate ceremonial calligraphy, of which comparisons to Terran musical notation are often made. Note that the name vanu-tanaf-kitaun references the act of doing calligraphy as a practice, while gotavlu-zukitan refers more to the figures of the script itself.
The sample at the head of this article is the name vanu-tanaf-kitaun written in the calligraphic script. Origins Vulcans take great pride in the origins and beauty of their kita in english business writing traditions. Their systems have evolved over time to suit the needs of a highly logical and technologically sophisticated culture.
This illustration compares the two primary writing traditions of ancient Vulcan. Both examples are thousands of years old.
The examples on the right are from the grandparent logograms that—with few modifications—are still used today for writing the language.
However, as mentioned previously, the modern usage when applied to everyday texts is phonetic, not iconic. Of course, there are still Vulcan scholars and calligraphers who are students of the ancient texts and who are skilled at both reading and writing the historic forms.
And, these particular three words might easily be recognized by average Vulcans due to their legacy in everyday life. But, most ancient writing in this lefthand style vanu-tanaf-kitaun would be opaque to non-specialists.
All Vulcans are familiar with the origins of the glyphs on the right because they have been recycled from logograms bikuv-kitaun into discrete letters nuhm for the modern script. The historic words have become the letter names of the modern sounds of the script.
This system will be covered in a separate article. There is also a third system in common use for informal handwriting.
It is considered purely utilitarian and rarely ever seen by non-Vulcans. It will also be addressed in a separate article. Writing Direction Historically, Vulcan writing comes from purely vertical traditions.
This is generally reflected in the letterforms themselves. However, in modern writing—influenced by modern logical standards—all Vulcan nuhm are positionally independent. Texts can be written vertically right to left most traditional ; vertically left to right common in conjunction with Federation technology systems when blocks of text are involved ; horizontally left to right when words are mixed with FSE contexts ; horizontally right to left when mixed with scripts which are normally configured in that orientation.
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Decorative contexts are the only scenarios in which it appears vertically bottom to top, or in other patterns—such as circles. Longer blocks of text typically begin with a kharat-ulidar direction markercolloquially called the patam head.
The patam orients the reader unambiguously as to the direction of the writing.
It also sets a formal tone and imbues the text with a sense of propriety and respect. A proper announcement or letter would never begin without one. Computer displays or other non-formal contexts do not require following this historic protocol. There are stylistic variations in patam.
These serve as a signature or seal to identify the artist, and by reputation, the significance of the artwork. The patam used most commonly here is a generic one with no artistic attribution and is appropriate for any typical letter or manuscript written by anyone.Examples of business letters, memos and emails in English that you can copy and modify as required.
With business letter vocab chart. For learners of Business English. business letter guidelines General guidelines for writing business letters. If writing a business letter takes you much longer than in your own language, here are a few guidelines that you may find helpful.
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