Feminism international relations Feminist IR considers the ways that international politics affects and is affected by both men and women and also at how the core concepts that are employed within the discipline of IR e. Feminist IR has not only concerned itself with the traditional focus of IR on states, wars, diplomacy and security, but feminist IR scholars have also emphasized the importance of looking at how gender shapes the current global political economy.
However, with the advancement of human civilization and the development of states, international relations gained a great significance in human lives and became an essential aspect for the survival of individuals and states.
Although in the beginning of human history, international relations were limited only to a field of activity, it gradually developed into an academic discipline gaining worldwide recognition. International relations were subjected to many changes in its evolvement process.
Various scholars and intellectuals have defined international relations differently and have come up with diverse theories and approaches for further understanding. This research will discuss the historical events which marked a great importance in International Relations and demonstrate the gradual progression of International Relations into an academic discipline.
As an activity, International relations are as old as the recorded history itself. When looking back to history, it becomes clear that humans are social beings and they cannot live in isolation.
From the day states were formed, those states have built and maintained relationships with external states. Those relationships, at times, have been militant and at other times peaceful. Convention identifies states as the major actors of international relations and as the nature of states evolved through time so has the international relations.
Before the emergence of the nation states which exists today, the pre-national forms of governments or constitutions which ruled the different parts of the world were personal states, theocracy, oligarchy, city states, territorial empires and trading empires.
With time the nature of relationships which states form with each other has changed based on the form of government, nature of the rulers and their attitudes Forms of Government, n. Written evidence has been found that Greek city states have kept relationships between each other.
These relationships have mostly been militant. The ancient Greece was much troubled and influenced by politics. Although the city states were constantly at war with each other, in many instances they formed alliances in the name of their security to fight and eliminate threats.
And also, in Greece, at the time of Olympics all city states called for a truce and seized fighting until the games are over Rhodes, These instances witness the existences of diplomacy in that period. However, the constant fighting of states makes it clear that the international relations at that time were not strong enough to hold peace for a long period because rulers at that time did not focus on avoiding conflicts in future.
Greek city states had many differences from each other. Sparta, for example, had a unique classification with Helots, Perioikoi and Spartiates sharing different citizen privileges, while in democratic cities like Athens, the citizens usually shared equal privileges.
Some cities had restrictions in trading with other cities, while others were economically dependent mostly on trading. These differences are the reason why Greeks preferred to be independent.
Moreover, for powerful cities, joining an alliance meant losing their dominance Mavrommatis, In many cases, for example, disputes arose as to who should lead the alliance and take 2 Wisidagama W D D S decisions, and whether the others should obey someone who they might consider inferior.
However, despite of many differences, Athens and Sparta joined alliances in the war against Persians between and B. The formation of the Hellenic League when the Persians started moving towards mainland Greece was an early example for the relations between Greek city states Mavrommatis, This shows that states cannot survive in isolation and their interdependence.
However, as soon as the Persian threat faded away from Greece, the league broke up showing the lack of agreement and poor nature of international relations between states. There were over members in the league which was led by Athens, the strongest naval power in Greece.
Member states provided ships or money to Athens in return for Athenian protection against Persians and also Mediterranean pirates.
The existence of alliances enabled Athens to gain power and threaten other city-states and turn it into an empire.
Athens grew more powerful and tensions rose. This eventually led to nearly three decades of war known as the Peloponnesian War B.
Both Sparta and Athens gathered allies and fought on and off because no single city- state was strong enough to conquer the other.
Although Athens and Sparta fought together against Persia in Persian war, in Peloponnesian war, Persia offered Sparta money to build a fleet that could challenge Athens.
This shows how the states used international relations to achieve their national interests and the complexity of international relations. At the end, Sparta emerged victorious, while the constant fighting left Athens bankrupt.JOHN BURTON AND THE STUDY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS: AN ASSESSMENT David J.
Dunn. In this article I want to assess the relationship between, the academic discipline of International Relations, by which I mean a set of issues and a community of scholars, and John Burton.
International Relations ‐ A Global Discipline!? An Introduction This session will introduce to the notion of IR as a geographically shaped and divided Crawford, R.M.A. (). International Relations as an Academic Discipline: If It’s Good The United States and the Discipline of International Relations.
International Relations (IR) has several origin stories, some of which are stronger than others. Each can be linked to a particular way of framing the discipline. Yet, there is one origin story that is missing, and our failure to tell that story is currently hampering our ability to think outside of our particular theoretical box.
The Evolution of mechatronics as an Academic Discipline. In the following the boxed numbers are used as references to the different stages. The move from a disciplinary view to a thematic view is discussed by Wikander et al.
 and compared to the trade of products and systems engineering. The Evolution of International Relations as a Field of Activity to International Relations as an Academic Discipline Shevoni Wisidagama HS// INTS Wisidagama W D D S Introduction International relations, on a traditional account, can be identified as actual relations between and among states.
Introduciton to international relation 1. As an academic discipline, international relations encompasses a wide range of academic fields, ranging from history to environmental studies, and there are a number of areas of specific specialty, for academics who are interested in them.• Origin and evolution of international relations.