An overview of the different theories of European Integration and … 2. Explanation of the Question: The various theories and approaches to European Integration: The main concepts presented in the question:
Not only has the study of crime and punishment broadened throughout the behavioral and social sciences, but, increasingly criminologists have adopted perspectives that are no longer grounded in "classical" versus "positivist" views of human nature and social interaction.
In today's postmodern and multicultural worlds of criminology and criminal justice characterized by post-structuralism, post-Marxism, post-affirmative action, and post-feminism, criminologists from a variety of schools of thought, including but not limited to critical, constitutive, positivist, and integrative, have come to appreciate, in different and in related ways, the numerous limitations of simple or "non-integrative" theories.
At worst, these analyses are very inadequate as they typically ignore more factors than they consider. Like theories in general which have diversified in Integration of different theories essay and approach, the same has been true of integrative theories, perhaps more so.
What makes integrative theories especially appealing is that the diversification of models is liberating to the extent that they allow for a creative plurality of knowledge based frameworks. This is the case, both within and across disciplinary boundaries, as well as within and across modernist and postmodernist modes of thought.
At the same time, some integrative theories focus on criminal behavior and criminal activity, others focus on punishment and crime control, still other focus on crime, justice, and social control. Moreover, some integrative theories are formalistic and consist of propositional statements stemming from two or more theories usually within the same discipline; other integrative models or theories are less formalistic and consist of conceptualizing the reciprocal or interactive relations between various levels of human motivation, social organization, and structural relationships.
Hence, when one thinks of integrative models one must realize from the beginning that there are many interpretations of what it means to be "doing" integration.
Ways of Seeing Integration Just as there are multiple ways of doing theory, or of building simple, one-dimensional models of crime production, there are, even more ways of constructing complex models of criminal Integration of different theories essay or of integrating criminologies.
Despite this abstract agreement on the meaning of integration, actual approaches to integration vary significantly. In other words, the ways of seeing or constituting criminological integration differ in both theory and practice.
As a consequence, the development of integrative theories and practices has, thus far, "proceeded in a somewhat anomic fashion with no [one] viable framework for synthetic work" having emerged in the study of crime and punishment Tittle, Nevertheless, much of the impetus for integration in criminology, at least early on, beginning in the s, was grounded in the disciplines of psychology or sociology, and occasionally from the perspective of social psychology.
For example, the criminological literature on theoretical integration reveals a strong reliance on learning and control theories, a weaker reliance on strain theory, followed closely by subcultural, conflict, and Marxist theories.
These sociological biases at work in criminological integration have traditionally marginalized theories and models of biology, evolution, history, gender, communication, economics, and law.
In contrast to the more sociologically- and psychologically-based positivist and modern stances toward integration, are the eclectically-based constructivist and postmodern stances toward integration. Both modernist and postmodernist approaches to integrative theories can be broken down further into a variety of explanations of crime and punishment.
Moreover, integrative or integrated theories, may be specific or general. Whereas the specific integrated theories have focused on a single form of criminality, such as rape or battering, the general integrated theories have attempted to make sense out of a relativley broad or inclusive range of harmful activities, including interpersonal, organizational, and structural forms.
Whether these attempts at integration have been modernist or postmodernist, some have confined themselves to criminality while others have focused more broadly on deviance and non-conformity. Finally, modernist forms of integration emphasize the centrality of theory in scientific endeavors and in the construction of causal models capable of predicting transgression.
Postmodernist forms of integration emphasize the ever-changing voices of plurality that provide meaning for the local sites of crime, justice, law, and community as these are constituted by harmful personal and social relationships Barak, a and b; Henry and Milovanovic, Integrating Bodies of Theory Whether discussing various forms of delinquency integration that hook theories together sequentially Cloward and Ohlin, ; Colvin and Pauly, ; Elliott, Huizinga, and Ageton, ; Elliott, Huizinga, and Menard,of learning or reinforcement forms of integration that bring theories together by focusing on a central causal process Glaser, ; Akers, ; Pearson and Weiner,or of macro- and micro-level forms of integration that link theories together by combinations of interdependencies Hagan, ; Kaplan, ; Tatum,these approaches to integration have engaged in three basic types of positivist integration: The structural integrations can be either "end-to-end" or "side-by-side" integrations.
End-to-end conceptualizations, such as those of mainline delinquency integration tend to give no preference to the various components involved and assume some kind of linear effect is in operation, so that different theorists might order the elements in different sequences Elliott, Ageton, andCantor, ; Johnson, By contrast, side-by-side integrations, provide a firmer basis for the sequencing of theoretical ingredients, in that later outcomes are conditional on earlier outcomes Braithwaite, Conceptual and assimilative integrations assume one of two kinds of abstract causal processes.
In the conceptual types of "up-and-down" integration, pre-existing theories are brought together that are saying more or less the same types of things, only at different levels of analysis, or related theories are brought together and blended into new theoretical products.
By contrast, the assimilative type of "kitchen sink" integrations employ abstract causal processes that do not consume other theories one way or the other, but rather allow different theories to be united into larger, abstract conceptual frameworks without respect to the interactive relationships and conditional effects that these theories may have on each other.
Modernist constructions of integrative theories may also be thought of or described in other related ways. These approaches may be divided up into those that emphasize kinds-of-people social process-micro modelskinds-of-organization social structure-macro modelsand kinds-of-culture micro-macro models explanations of crime and punishment.
The following represent a few brief examples of each of these types of modernist integration: Wilson and Herrnstein Their theory is an eclectic, social learning-behavioral choice formulation that relies on both positivist determinism and classical free will as it claims various linkages between criminality and hereditary factors, impulsivity, low intelligence, family practices, school experiences, and the effects of mass media on the individual.
Krohn bridged together theoretical propositions from the delinquency-enhancing effects of differential association and the delinquency-constraining effects of social bonds, as these interact with social learning and social control. His network theory maintains that the lower the network density in relationship to population density, the weaker the constraints against nonconformity, and the higher rates of delinquency.
In Class, State and Crime, Quinney provided a general and integrative theory expressed through the contradictions and development of capitalism. His political economy of crime and crime control articulates a class-structural analysis where two interconnected sets of criminality, the crimes of domination and repression are committed by capitalists and agents of control, and the crimes of accommodation and resistance are committed by workers and ordinary people.
This social structure- macro model argues that not only are the differential opportunities for crime class specific, but so too are the accompanying motivations for both crime and punishment. Stark introduced an integrated set of thirty propositions as an approximation of a theory of deviant places.
His "kinds-of-place" explanation or ecological theory analyzed the traits of places and groups rather than the traits of individuals.
It contends that the deviant behavior of the poor varies in relation to population density, poverty, mixed land use, transience, and dilapidation. In Power, Crime, and Mystification, Box provided a conceptual integration of how corporate crime overcomes environmental uncertainties by illegally reducing or eliminating competition through fraud, bribery, manipulation, price-fixing, and so on.
Box employed anomie and strain as the motivational sources behind corporate crime.Theories Of European Integration Essay. A+. Pages:6 Words This is just a sample. We will write a custom essay sample on Theories Of European Integration specifically for you Neo-functionalism is an integration process that involves political actors in different nation states shifting their loyalties and activities in a direction.
The following unedited or draft essay by Gregg Barak, "Integrative Theories," was published in the Encyclopedia of Crime & Punishment (Sage, ): Over the past couple of decades, theories of crime and punishment have blossomed in their diversity.
Dewey, in his essay “The Relation of Theory to Practice in Education” (Dewey, /), desirability of enhancing learning by integrating theory and practice, or classroom and field, within the integration of practice and theory in the classroom. Free Essay: Personal Theory of Counseling Meaghan O’Reilly Counseling and Psychotherapy Theories COUN Dr.
Bob Today, the majority of counselors and. Integration Of Diversity Diversity, when referred to in business terms may mean a lot of things - Integration Of Diversity Essay introduction. An organization’s workforce may be referred to as diverse for many reasons as well. Diversity may occur because of the differences of opinion because of the differences in personality, in age, in educational.
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