Given the importance of sexual transmission in the HIV epidemic, many HIV prevention strategies have focused on identifying and promoting safer-sex practices. As the name implies, these practices are thought to be "safer" than other sexual practices in that they help reduce but do not necessarily eliminate the risk of transmitting HIV from one sexual partner to another.
Participants heard a discussion going on in the room next door. There were 2 conditions: No weapon condition man with greasy hands emerging from another room holding a pen And weapon condition a man coming from another room with a bloody paperknife. Participants were asked to identify the man from a selection of 50 people.
Results showed that participants from the no-weapon condition were more accurate in recall. Loftus concluded that the weapon drew more attention than the pen, so their attention was allocated to the weapon than the face.
This can be explained by repression, as the knife may have provoked their memory and emotion thus creating false memories, which is very unreliable in EWT.
Evaluation of research both studies on EWT: But, due to demand characteristics, it cannot be concluded that the verb in Discuss the extent to which female leading question completely influenced participants' speed estimates, but played a part in its influence. Background details of the crime: In this study, the crime was a real theft and gun shooting crime scene.
Incident took place in Vancouver. There were 21 witnesses interviewed by the police originally who had witnessed the event from different viewpoints: Twenty of those eyewitnesses were contacted by the researchers four-to-five months after the event, asking them to take part in a scientific study.
Of those 20, thirteen agreed to participate in the study.
All aged between ; only three female, and ten males The victim was not asked to participate as he did not wish to relive the trauma. The researchers interviewed the participants at this four or five month period after the incident.
The interviews were recorded and transcribed. They used the same interviewing procedure as the police had used with them allowing them to give their account first and then asking questions. Of course, one of the aims was to look into the effects of leading questions, and so following Loftus' procedures, two leading questions were used.
Half the group were asked if they saw a broken headlight, and the other half if they saw the broken headlight, when in fact there was no broken headlight in the thief's car.
Similarly, half of the participants were asked about a yellow panel on the car, and the others about the yellow panel, whereas the quarter panel was really blue.
A scoring procedure was introduced to turn the qualitative data collected into quantitative data. This was carefully devised, as the researchers needed to know not only the true details of the event, but also be able to compare the results to those of the police interviews.
The researchers ended up obtaining more details than the police had. The police found action details against the researchers' action details. What was found is that the misleading questions had very little effect on their recall.
Ten of the eyewitnesses said that there was no broken headlight and no yellow quarter panel at all on the thief's car which was correct to identify. This was the first case study of EWT, which was a field study and a study therefore of a real case that had not been manipulated by the researchers.
It was useful to compare the findings of this, therefore valid, study against other studies such as Loftus and Palmerwhich were laboratory experiments, and so tended not to be valid. This enabled the researchers to see the extent to which the conclusions of such previous studies were reliable.
It was found that eyewitnesses were actually very reliable. There were several factors which made this true, including correctly recalling large numbers of accurate details; almost always arguing the misleading questions and a healthy comparison between the police and research interviews.
However, they agreed it would be hard to generalise the findings of this study, as the case as with any other case study is unique, and it is difficult to find a similar one naturally occurring again.
Even more so, as there were only thirteen participants to this study eight of the original witnesses either moved or did not want to take part.
Yuille and Cutshall concluded that eyewitnesses were in fact not inaccurate, contrary to the findings of the vast majority of previous research into eyewitness testimony, which had all been from laboratory experiments.
The misleading questions had had little effect on the eyewitness, which again disagreed with a Loftus' theory of misleading questions.
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