Cardiac nursing case study myocardial infarction

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Cardiac nursing case study myocardial infarction

Usnnursing / Cardiovascular Mini Case Studies

In an MI, an area of the myocardium is permanently destroyed because plaque rupture and subsequent thrombus formation result in complete occlusion of the artery.

Pathophysiology In each case of MI, a profound imbalance exists between myocardial oxygen supply and demand. There is reduced blood flow in a coronary arteryoften due to rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque, but the artery is not completely occluded.

As the cells are deprived of oxygen, ischemia develops, cellular injury occurs, and lack of oxygen leads to infarction or death of the cells. Each year in the United States, nearly 1 million people have acute MIs.

One fourth of the people with the disease die of MI. Half of the people who die with acute MI never reach the hospital. Causes The causes of MI primarily stems from the vascular system.

This is the sudden constriction or narrowing of the coronary artery. The decrease in oxygen supply occurs from acute blood loss, anemiaor low blood pressure. Increased demand for oxygen. A rapid heart rate, thyrotoxicosis, or ingestion of cocaine causes an increase in the demand for oxygen.

Clinical Manifestations Some of the patients have prodromal symptoms or a previous diagnosis of CAD, but about half report no previous symptoms.

Persistent and crushing substernal pain that may radiate to the left arm, jaw, neck, or shoulder blades. Pain is usually described as heavy, squeezing, or crushing and may persist for 12 hours or more.

Because of increased oxygen demand and a decrease in the supply of oxygen, shortness of breath occurs. Indigestion is present as a result of the stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system.

To compensate for the decreased oxygen supply, the heart rate and respiratory rate speed up. The patient may experience such as coolness in extremities, perspiration, anxietyand restlessness.

Unusually occurs at the onset of MI, but a low-grade temperature elevation may develop during the next few days. Prevention A healthy lifestyle could help prevent the development of MI.

Exercising at least thrice a week could help lower cholesterol levels that cause vasoconstriction of the blood vessels.

Nicotine causes vasoconstriction which can increase the pressure of the blood and result in MI. Assessment and Diagnostic Findings The diagnosis of MI is generally based on the presenting symptoms. The patient history includes the description of the presenting symptoms, the history of previous cardiac and other illnesses, and the family history of heart diseases.

ST elevation signifying ischemia; peaked upright or inverted T wave indicating injury; development of Q waves signifying prolonged ischemia or necrosis.

Myocardial infarction case analyse | allnurses

Cardiac enzymes and isoenzymes. Elevates within 4—8 hr, peaks in 12—20 hr, returns to normal in 48—72 hr.Case Studies of ST-Segment Elevation Before and After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction Julia McAvoy, RN, MSN, CCRN Julia McAvoy is a registered nurse specialist in the quality management department at the Washington Hospital in Washington, Pa.

Myocardial infarction (MI) is the irreversible necrosis of heart muscle secondary to prolonged ischemia. This usually results from an imbalance of oxygen supply and demand.

The appearance of cardiac enzymes in the circulation generally indicates myocardial necrosis/5(9). Case Studies of ST-Segment Elevation Before and After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction Julia McAvoy, RN, MSN, CCRN Julia McAvoy is a registered nurse specialist in the quality management department at the Washington Hospital in Washington, Pa.

Cardiac Case Study A. STUDY. because the increased hardening of her arteries along with her predisposition for blood clotting could cause a second myocardial infarction or a pulmonary embolus.

Cardiac nursing case study myocardial infarction

infection or septic shock, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), depression of the cardiac function, and overall multiorgan failure.

At. Case Study #6 MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION Case Introduction Myocardial infarction (heart attack) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Myocardial infarction (MI) is the irreversible necrosis of heart muscle secondary to prolonged ischemia. This usually results from an imbalance of oxygen supply and demand.

The appearance of cardiac enzymes in the circulation generally indicates myocardial necrosis/5(9).

myocardial infarction case analyse | allnurses