Durlaufthe William F. Vilas Research Professor and Kenneth J.
Causality - What are causes, mechanisms, and the like? We casually refer to causes and effects in normal interactions all the time. We all conduct our lives — choosing actions, making decisions, trying to influence others — based on theories about why and how things happen in the world.
From the early stages of childhood we attribute causes, building a vision of the social and physical world that makes it understandable. Every action, every choice about what to do, is based on our anticipation of its effects, our understandings of consequences.
Analytical and scientific reasoning has a similar form, but requires that we approach causation more systematically and self-consciously.
Analytical Task The general analytical problem. In this and other societies, women and men commonly dress differently. Prepare a causal analysis that seeks to explain why women and men dress differently. Our analytical task this week is to attempt a "simple" causal analysis of a gender difference that is obvious but not often questioned - the way we dress.
The purpose of this exercise is to get us thinking about causality. To the degree that we can, we want to try to think of different kinds of causes based on varied ways of framing the causal question.
Realistically, one could easily write a book about all the possible ways of interpreting this causal question and answering it. We are just trying to develop some sensible insights in a couple pages.
The starting point of most causal analyses is a comparison. When we start with the general question "what causes X? Examples of such questions might be "why do people in group A do X more than those in group B?
If we are trying to explain some phenomenon, X, then we need to identify variations in the likelihood of X or the rate of X, and look for potential causes that 1 vary across the relevant circumstances in a way that could explain X and 2 that we can connect to the outcomes for X in some way.
For example, with the gender distinctive clothing question, some ways to better specify the question and look at it through comparisons are: What causes individual conformity to the cultural pattern? What induces women and men to conform to the expectations for dressing differently? Whenever we observe a consistent pattern of social behavior, some common conditions or processes must be inducing people to act in a similar way.
Figuring out what encourages conformity and discourages deviance allows us to provide a causal explanation. Think about what happens to people who do not conform to the expectations about male and female appropriate clothing.
And, just as important, ask why it is that people punish nonconformists. Here the basic comparison is between people who conform and those who do not, or between the reactions of people to conformity and nonconformity.
What causes differences in dress "codes" across cultures?CHAPTER 15 GENDER INEQUALITY Final Draft, August The transformation of gender relations since the beginning of the 20th century is one of the most rapid, profound social changes in .
Asses the Functionalist explanations of Social Inequality. (40) Social Inequality refers to any difference between groups or individuals in society which results in one having inferior life chances than the other.
Start studying Gender G Outline and assess the view that patriarchy is the main cause of gender inequality / Outline the feminist explanation of gender inequalities. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Assess the claim that the main function of education is to maintain social inequality Some sociologist such as functionalist argue that the inequality of education teaches children the skills needed in the workplace and economy whereas Marxist believe education passes on ruling class ideology that supports capitalism, and femmist say that the education system is patriarchal.
Open Document. Below is an essay on "Assess the View That Inequality in Conjugal Relationships Continues in British Families (20 Marks)" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples. 1 An Approach to Assess Inequality in Cumulative Impacts Rachel Morello-Frosch & Bill Jesdale UC Berkeley School of Public Health & Department of.