Abundance of punctuation marks or lack of them Slow writing Peculiarities and exaggeration Printed letters Between 3 April and 13 Februarythe East End of London became the staging place for a series of sickening murders that caused outrage through the entire nation. Although the killer's identity has been wildly speculated upon, to this day the murderer is known only as Jack the Ripper?
It supplied cult figures of gods, dedications in sanctuaries, monuments to stand above graves, architectural decorations, and eventually statues and reliefs for wealthy private houses.
Of all this relatively little remains: The reason was not usually religious zeal, but the value of marble as raw material for lime and of bronze for scrap, so that in order to survive, sculpture had to be out of sight and reach.
Thus, what we now have is a sample unevenly distributed in time, type and quality. Architectural sculpture, while still in place, was not likely to be removed and, when the building collapsed, might be buried under a mass of masonry. Independent reliefs, especially gravestones, were liable to fall down and, if covered over, be forgotten; and any slab carved in low relief could be reused as a structural block.
Free-standing statues had poorer chances, since they were less likely to be hidden sufficiently by debris, especially in populous places. Metal, of course, was worth digging for and so less than a score of Greek bronzes have turned up that are reasonably complete, several of them dredged up from the sea.
As for marble, works from the Archaic period survived best; being less admired it was less carefully conserved by later Greeks and Romans and so could be lost before the period of destruction set in, and there is also the big cache from the Acropolis of Athens where much of the statuary which the Persians broke in was used as in-fill during the restoration that followed.
At the other end, Roman art provides us with a surfeit of copies of popular Greek sculptures from both the Classical and Hellenistic eras. These copies, some Late Hellenistic but more of them Roman, hinder as well as help the enjoyment and study of Greek sculpture.
Though the copyists fixed points by measurement, the points were much sparser than those used in modern practice and the intervening spaces and the details were carved freehand and usually without much care, as can be seen when comparing different reproductions of the same original.
In general copies are fairly reliable for pose, but mostly so harsh and insensitive in their treatment of surface that they more often repel than interest the unprejudiced viewer; and with the finer examples there is the problem whether the copyists may not also have been creative.
Unfortunately very few first-rate Classical stautues or ones from the Hellenistic period of Greek sculpture have survived in the original and those that are known through copies are far more numerous, so that copies are an essential reference in any stylistic survey of Greek sculpture.
Besides the surviving originals and copies there is another source of information in the remains of Greek and Latin literature. Pliny the Elder the Roman author, CE includes a continuous account of Greek sculpture in the Naturalis Historia he compiled around the middle of the first century CE, while Pausanias a century later mentions many of the works he saw when travelling round for his Description of Greece.
In addition, there are casual references to sculptors and sculptures by other authors. Pausanias was quite uncritical, reporting faithfully what was told him but he was more interested in mythology than in art.
Pliny's account, mainly second-hand, is compounded of colourful but untrustworthy anecdotes, lists of sculptors and their most famous works, and a series of stylistic judgments that were probably taken from a Greek critic of the third century with a good and sensitive knowledge of Classical sculpture c.
In practice our understanding of the development of Greek sculpture depends on the stylistic analysis of surviving works, supported by a miscellany of dates from historical records and inscriptions.
The most important of these dates are the Persian capture of the Acropolis of Athens inwhich gives a lower limit for the works they damaged; the completion of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia not later than ; the sculptural decoration of the Parthenon, carried out in sequence from to ; the Nike of Paionios, commissioned about ; the gravestone of Dexileos, killed at Corinth in ; the building of the Mausoleum, which was going on in the s; the embellishment of the Great Altar at Pergamum, which is very probably of the early 2nd century; the destruction of Delos in 69; and the dedication of the Ara Pacis Augustae at Rome in 9 BCE.
The present state of knowledge of ancient art in Greece is very uneven. For the Archaic period, where there are no lists in Pliny to distract students, the examination of style has produced a reasonably credible evolution, as it has too - in spite of Pliny - for the Classical period till near the end of the fifth century; but even here, experts are liable to disagree by as much as twenty years over the dating of particular works.
The fourth century is obscure, whatever the text-books say, and the Hellenistic period still more so, except perhaps towards its end. Though in time there should be more precision about trends, it does not seem that we shall ever have enough material to understand the personalities of Greek sculpture, not that that will deter the many students who remain devoted to their Natural History.
For more about the influence of Greek sculpture on 20th century artists, see: Classical Revival in modern art Sculptural Materials in Ancient Greece The principal materials for Greek sculpture were stone especially marble and bronze - limestone, terracotta and wood being much inferior - and there were several famous examples of ivory carving, notably the chryselephantine statues made by Phidias from gold sheeting and ivory mounted on a wooden core.
Marble, which was used from the beginning, occurs in several places in and around the Aegean, though not in South Italy and Sicily.
The Greeks liked white, medium to fine-grained varieties, with much more sparkle than the Carrara or Luna later exploited by the Romans and still familiar in the cemeteries of Western Europe.
Limestone, which Classical archaeologists often call 'poras', is plentiful in most Greek lands and some of it is of very fine quality; it was the commonest stone for statues in the seventh century, but afterwards passed as reputable only for architectural sculpture in places like Sicily, where marble was too expensive.Small subcortical brain infarcts, commonly known as lacunar strokes, constitute about 25% of ischemic strokes and are particularly frequent among Hispanics.
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