Municipal, industrial and surface run-offs 1, Effect of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants in the environment Crude oil, a mixture of many thousands of organic compounds, can vary in composition from one source to another.
Where Did It Come From? August 23, Introduction The need for identification, delineation, and differentiation of petroleum-derived contaminants resulting from leaking storage tanks, pipelines, or following a release of fuel during trans-shipment of petroleum is a particularly challenging aspect of site investigations where an equitable settlement of the resulting liability and damages is at stake.
In the past few years, continued developments in the chemical fingerprinting of refined petroleum products, such as gasoline and diesel fuel Kaplan et al.
Environmental forensic investigations typically address questions aimed at identifying the nature of contamination, its sources, and the timing of its release to determine the responsible parties.
Definitive answers to these questions are not always achieved through forensic investigations, but combining chemical fingerprinting with other types of forensic data, including an understanding of the site-specific geologic and hydrogeologic conditions and operational and regulatory histories for the site, can produce highly effective and defensible arguments Stout et al.
Here, we describe some of the advances in forensic chemistry that have been developed in the last five years, and we present examples of their application. These new methods are now routinely used in the chemical fingerprinting of automotive gasolines and diesel fuels, and the two abbreviated case studies presented below demonstrate how they have been successfully applied in recent environmental forensic investigations.
Analytical Strategies Chemical fingerprinting data must provide sufficient specificity to recognize the particular types of petroleum present at a site, characterize the effects of weathering on their chemical composition, and provide the diagnostic information necessary to distinguish and perhaps allocate between multiple sources of petroleum and assess their likely ages.
Conventional lists of chemicals measured to demonstrate regulatory compliance do not include the dominant and important hydrocarbon compounds that make up petroleum.
Instead, methods of chemical analysis suitable for environmental forensics investigations measure a broader suite of compounds in gasoline and diesel fuel that are useful for source identification and differentiation.
For investigations of gasoline or middle-distillate e. Such a strategy allows for the quantitative measurement of a large number of gasoline-range volatile and diesel range semi-volatile hydrocarbons and non-hydrocarbons.
In diesel fuel investigations this involves the measurement of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, parent and alkylated PAH, low-boiling biomarkers e.
Detailed descriptions of the analytical methods used to measure these compounds have been published elsewhere Stout et al. Gasoline Fingerprinting Automotive gasolines are complex fuels blended from a variety of intermediate refinery streams, each with different physical and chemical properties Stout et al.
Historic gasolines were blended primarily to achieve physical specifications for boiling range, vapor pressure, oxidation stability, and octane with the goal being suitable engine performance, such as starting under a range of temperatures, acceleration, knock, and resistance to vapor lock.
How these physical specifications were achieved was largely left up to the individual refiners. Consequently, historic gasoline blends were quite variable in chemical composition in both a temporal and spatial sense.
Modern reformulated and oxygenated gasolines must now meet stricter physical and chemical specifications.
The latter include restrictions on the content of olefins, sulfur, benzene, total aromatic hydrocarbons, and oxygen. These stricter specifications have reduced the compositional variability that had existed within the gasoline pool. This is exemplified in Figure 2, which shows the normalized PIANO distribution for two premium reformulated gasolines RFGs sold in the mid-Atlantic region an ozone non-attainment area during the winter of The reformulated gasolines originating from these two refiners can be distinguished on this basis.
The following case study illustrates the effectiveness of this method for fingerprinting gasoline: Case Study 1 —Identify the Source of Off-Site Contamination The objective of this investigation was to determine if a non-aqueous phase liquid NAPL encountered under a street separating two service stations was correlated to free-phase gasolines on either of the two adjacent service station properties.
Detailed analysis was conducted on free-phase gasoline product samples from each property and on the NAPL from beneath the street Figure 3. The gasolines recovered from each station revealed genetic differences related to refinery blending.
Station Refiner A apparently did not use alkylate in production of their gasoline. Diesel Fuel Fingerprinting Diesel fuel 2 used in on-road vehicles belong to the distillate family of fuels.
As their name implies, the production of distillate fuels involves vaporizing and re-condensing, which distinguishes them from the higher boiling, residual fuels e.The Economics of a Disaster: The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill [Bruce M.
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The Economics of a Disaster represents a major contribution to the understanding of the economics of liability and damages.
It is based on the assumption that if people know they can be held. Explanation of other related emergency planning laws. Other federal environmental laws require facility emergency plans that may not be easy to access or review.
ISCO is currently reconsidering the possibility of restarting its effort to foster the creation of international guidelines for decanting settled-out water during oil spill containment-recovery operations.
Thirteen offshore wind energy leases have been awarded to developers and BOEM is committed to working with our many stakeholders as we continue to lease the OCS for responsible renewable energy development activities. The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska, March 24, , when Exxon Valdez, an oil tanker owned by Exxon Shipping Company, bound for Long Beach, California, struck Prince William Sound's Bligh Reef, miles west of Tatitlek, Alaska at am local time and spilled million US gallons (, bbl)(or a mass of 35, metric tonnes) of crude oil over the next.
Introduction. The need for identification, delineation, and differentiation of petroleum-derived contaminants resulting from leaking storage tanks, pipelines, or following a release of fuel during trans-shipment of petroleum is a particularly challenging aspect of site investigations where an equitable settlement of the resulting liability and damages is at stake.