His ideas on these matters — outside of his role as a civil-rights leader — are much more personal.
Although he addressed his advice on leadership to a Medici prince in the context of 16th century Italy, Machiavelli is read carefully today by scholars and practitioners of educational leadership, organizational theory and politics, and avoided assiduously by others in these fields.
This critical view potentially stimulates reflection and debate among graduate students, provides useful guidelines for action in the field, and restores much needed credibility to university preparation programmes dominated at present by market imperatives.
In pragmatic and ethical terms, these words outline the significance to educational leaders of interdisciplinary study, of calling on other knowledge bases, and public commentary to strengthen leadership in the realms of teaching and learning widely conceived. The security of our public schools, and the legitimacy of our university programmes, demand nothing less than such a catholic approach to understanding the times in which we live.
Possibly no historical figure has provoked a stronger emotional response from organizational leaders and the general public than Machiavelli, seen variously as the epitome of evil e.
In essence, the argument expresses the tension between seeing the world as one wishes it to be, and the world as it is. Although my context is Canada, the arguments of this paper apply internationally, but especially to countries of the Western philosophic and economic tradition.
Reflections on the unforeseen forces of destiny, i. Throughout, security is considered not so much as physical safety but, rather, as a threat to politics and scholarship inherent in the ideology of neo-liberalism: The paper, therefore, is at the same time theoretical, methodological and pedagogical.
These starting points lead to my interest in security and The Prince as an important foundation for reflection and action. Starting Points First, I accept the view that ideologies of globalization and its epistemic handmaiden, neo- liberalism, have come to dominate Western and, to some extent, Eastern thought and action.
These ideologies have replaced, over the past half century, concepts of governmental responsibility for the welfare of citizens Brodie, By globalization, I refer to the dominance of state economies by corporate interests, and to the growing list of international trade agreements that make room for corporations to move from place to place in search of the most economical means of doing business Cohen, Instead, the state along with corporate enterprise, promotes the deregulation and privatization of hitherto 3 4 public services in the name of greater efficiency.
The discourse of neo-liberalism, governed by corporate-speak, has left its destructive mark on all government institutions, including education, health care, and social services. A second presupposition, concerning educational scholarship, is that the theory generated in academe is indispensable to practice; it is worth securing.
Universities, however, in adhering to business models of governance i. This threat to the physical environment and institutions, and to those who labour with and within them, emanates from the larger political ethos of our times.
These three presuppositions bring me to the major point of this paper. To make meaning of our institutions and society at large, and to contribute to positive change, educational leaders must look beyond the dictates of technical rationality and neo-liberalism.
To this end, foundational areas of study are essential components of graduate study in that they deal with clear and critical thinking, the importance of words, and history as more than the story of change over a five-year period. The study of leadership foundations -- defined philosophically as history, ethics and aesthetics Hodkinson,and even more widely as sociology, economics and politics Bates, -- offers many worthy advisors on leadership praxis whose words could be included in a graduate course.
As Anderson and Grinberg point out, apropos the scientism of educational administration since the mid 20th century i. Several feminists were wary of foundational studies that merely perpetuated male authority and dominance e.
In fact, as demonstrated internationally in post-secondary terms, the foundations are widely under threat Yang, ; Radice, The objective of such a broadly based course, however, must be to stimulate student reflection in preparation for action in the field.
Collingwood ; who, of the many interpreters of history, spoke from a particularly wide amalgam of perspectives. A true polymath in search of past action that recreates and presents contemporary lessons, he searched for evidence within the diverse fields of archaeology, art and history.
Collingwood contends that, by grasping past realities, we stand a better chance of knowing ourselves and our own motivations, i.
To superimpose a 21st century ethic upon a 16th century landscape would serve neither the purpose of history nor of contemporary thought. The Prince offers scenarios ideally suited to imaginative interpretation, fulsome debate about past acts and purposes, and dramatic re-interpretations of possible action today.
Machiavelli for Educational Leaders But one might ask if there lurks a danger in students of leadership reading Machiavelli who, after all, is simultaneously revered as a tactical genius and as lacking all moral integrity.
The focus of critique, where one appears, lies not on individual frailty but, rather, on social and political problems Blackmore, ; Koyama, More recent social commentary tends to explore class, race and inclusivity as faced by individual principals Brown, ; Theoharis, This is where Machiavelli comes in, introducing stories of how people -- motivated by passionate motives e.
A second justification for Machiavellian study flows naturally from a closer look at the individual leader. Therefore, we can appreciate his thesis that fortune at times can trump skill and planning.The Prince was one of a long line of advice books for rulers, a genre called the “mirror-for-princes.” They framed their instruction—which included eloquence, history, geography, music, and dance—according to principles of Christian virtue.
A most significant thing about this long list of the king’s alleged actions is the assumption that in each case the king acted with deliberate intention and from a bad motive. It is the bad general purpose Edition: current; Page: [ 15 ] of the king, rather than his bad particular acts, that makes the .
iridis-photo-restoration.com is a platform for academics to share research papers. Roles in Leadership: Machiavelli and Martin Luther essaysMachiavelli and Luther have different outlooks on leadership.
Martin Luther emphasizes spiritual leadership. On the other hand, Machiavelli tells us that the leader should use force but at the same time understand that the people know who t.
- In chapter 17 of The Prince, On Cruelty and Mercy, and Whether It Is Better to Be Loved Than to be Feared or the Contrary, Machiavelli continues his discussion of virtues that the modern reader might not consider as virtues. Martin Luther King, Jr. was an African-American clergyman who advocated social change through non-violent means.
A powerful speaker and a man of great spiritual strength, he shaped the American civil rights movement of the s and s.