This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Occupational therapists determine the dosage when establishing the plan of care for their pediatric clients. A content analysis was conducted using pediatric occupational therapy outcomes studies from 9 scholarly international occupational therapy journals. The parameters of dosage were calculated using descriptive statistics in order to obtain a representation of dosage available within the current collage of pediatric occupational therapy outcomes studies.
Advanced Search Abstract The central assumption in the literature on collaborative networks and policy networks is that political outcomes are affected by a variety of state and nonstate actors.
Some of these actors are more powerful than others and can therefore have a considerable effect on decision making. In this article, we seek to provide a structural and institutional explanation for these power differentials in policy networks and support the explanation with empirical evidence.
We use a dyadic measure of influence reputation as a proxy for power, and posit that influence reputation over the political outcome is related to vertical integration into the political system by means of formal decision-making authority, and to horizontal integration by means of being well embedded into the policy network.
Hence, we argue that actors are perceived as influential because of two complementary factors: Based on temporal and cross-sectional exponential random graph models, we compare five cases about climate, telecommunications, flood prevention, and toxic chemicals politics in Switzerland and Germany.
The five networks cover national and local networks at different stages of the policy cycle. The results confirm that institutional and structural drivers seem to have a crucial impact on how an actor is perceived in decision making and implementation and, therefore, their ability to significantly shape outputs and service delivery.
Introduction Policy analysis and public administration both have a strong interest in how effective and efficient policy outputs and outcomes are produced Howlett and Ramesh ; Knill and Tosun Yet they focus on different stages of the policy cycle Jann and Wegrich ; Rethemeyer and Hatmaker Research about policy making tends to concentrate on negotiations and structures during the decision-making process.
It aims at explaining how policy solutions are designed to tackle problems that have passed the crucial agenda-setting stage Baumgartner and Jones ; Sabatier and Jenkins-Smith The definition of the power of those actors depends on whether we conceptualize policy making as a process shaped by elected officials and senior public managers or rather by a variety of interdependent private and public actors Montjoy and Watson ; Svara Although the first can be understood as institutional power defined by formal rules, the second can be characterized as informal structural power or access to political influence Stokman and Zeggelink Policy networks are composed of actors nodes and the relations among them ties or edges.
In empirical policy networks, the two modes of power—formal power derived from institutional roles and structural power derived from network configurations—cannot be easily disentangled. Recent studies emphasize the potentially complementary impact of the two modes of power see also Feiock et al.
Both studies aim at disentangling formal decision-making rules and institutionally derived resources from, on the one hand, deliberative processes and, on the other, resources derived from persistent patterns of interaction between actors in a network see also Kenis and Schneider They further highlight that integrating both institutional and structural resources into one statistical network model would help to understand the complexity of resource dependence and power im balance.
In line with these studies, we aim to provide a structural and institutional explanation for power differentials in policy networks and further ask what impact structural versus formal power has on the formation of policy outputs and outcomes.
However, we acknowledge that it is difficult to empirically evaluate the policy success of an actor or the effectiveness of achieving policy outputs McConnell We therefore seek to investigate an antecedent condition for factual political influence and success: Carpenter and Carpenter and Krause convincingly demonstrate how reputation shapes the factual influence and behavior of government agencies and how organizational reputation is relevant for understanding their role in democratic systems.
In line with Kilduff and Krackhardtwe define reputation as the perceived importance of actors when evaluated by their peers or other stakeholders involved in the policy process.
The underlying assumption is that actors who have a reputation for being influential can considerably influence collective decision making. This research therefore asks: We posit that influence reputation on the political outcome is related to two complementary factors: Hence, we argue that actors are perceived as influential because of both their institutional power and their structural power derived from their positions in the policy network.
Moreover, the analysis presented in this article tests whether these propositions are empirically valid across different types of networks, or whether they are confined to local- or national-level networks, collaborative or adversarial networks, or decision making or implementation networks.
Theoretical arguments from the different branches of the literature suggest that a unified explanation of power differentials might be valid across contexts. Our argument is structured as follows. The first section discusses perceived influence reputation our dependent variable in the statistical model presented below as an intervening variable in the explanation of political outcomes.
The second section reviews existing research on reputation in policy networks and develops several hypotheses along the lines of institutional and structural features of actors in policy networks our independent variables. The third section provides details about the datasets and methods employed in our empirical analysis.
Finally, the last section concludes and discusses implications for public policy and management, and avenues for future research.
Zhang and Feiock show under what conditions administrative managers share power with elected bodies. This is not to say that managers do not require formal authority, but rather that the combination of authority and referent power—defined as respect, loyalty, and admiration—can create considerable influence Locke This study developed and empirically tested two related models of the occupational/career decision-making processes of gifted adolescents using a competing models strategy.
The two models that guided the study, which acknowledged cultural. The moment of capitalization corresponds to the moment of choice in our earlier discussion of cost, and it may clarify the analysis to think of an asset owner’s making a choice which involves giving up, either in taxation or in some other form, a claim to a part of the asset’s future income stream.
Ethical Decision Making in Organizations: The Role of Leadership Stress Marcus Selart Svein Tvedt Johansen choice on the part of the decision maker.
A moral agent is the person who makes a moral decision occupational stress and its effects on cognitive func-tioning, perception, and problem solving is well de-. hypotheses, suggesting that the choice of a certain occupation and the decision to become self-employed are indeed interrelated.
The paper proceeds as follows. factor influencing high school students to enter construction-education program is because their occupational information, demands for the job, difference in age, gender, and personal characteristics all influence factors that affect one’s career decision making and career development were studied.
Those factors were. This study tested a newly developed model of the cognitive decision-making processes of senior high school students related to university entry.
The model incorporated variables derived from motivation theory (i.e. expectancy-value theory and the theory of reasoned action), literature on cultural orientation and occupational considerations.